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180 Money Saving Tips to Turn Your Financial Life Around 180 Degrees

Written by Brett McKay

Here’s a list of 180 money saving tips that can turn your financial life around 180 degrees. These are things that I have learned while reading blogs or other books. I’ve tried to provide links to blog posts and other articles that elaborate more on the tip. This was a fun exercise. While I personally don’t practice every single tip listed, it was a good way to find out how I can do better on saving money.


  1. Wash and vacuum your car at home.
  2. Buy a used car. New cars drop significantly in value as soon as you drive off the lot.
  3. Get rid of your car. If you’re married, just have one.
  4. Keep your tires inflated at the correct pressure.
  5. Do not carry unneeded weight in your vehicle. Excess weight puts a heavier load on the engine.
  6. Accelerate slowly and smoothly. Avoid jackrabbit starts. Get into high gear as quickly as possible.
  7. Use your air conditioner only when absolutely necessary.
  8. Avoid unnecessary stopping and braking. Maintain a steady pace.
  9. Do not rest your foot on the clutch or brake pedal. This causes needless wear and poor fuel economy.
  10. Keep the front wheels in proper alignment. Improper alignment not only causes faster tire wear, but also puts an extra load on the engine.
  11. Rotate your tires regularly. Rotating tires slows down tire wear.
  12. Wash your car regularly. A dirty car can damage paint.
  13. Avoid heavy traffic. You’ll save on gas by not idling as much.
  14. Change your own motor oil.
  15. Observe speed limits. You’ll save money on gas and avoid costly speeding tickets and the resulting increase in insurance rates.
  16. Pay your auto insurance premiums annually instead of every six months. You’ll get a lower rate.
  17. Use the bus to get to school or work.
  18. If possible, ride your bike or walk to your destinations.
  19. Carpool with co-workers.


  1. Find an image consultant in your town and ask if you can have the clothes their clients get rid of.
  2. Don’t buy into trends. Keep a wardrobe of classic pieces, so you don’t have to update your clothes every year.
  3. Buy clothes at a thrift store.
  4. Wear clothes more than once before washing them. You’ll reduce wear on your clothes and save energy by not washing so often.
  5. Shop at outlet stores.
  6. Avoid buying clothes that require drying cleaning.
  7. Cut dryer sheets in half to double the value of each box.
  8. Buy your winter clothes at the end of winter/beginning of spring. Buy summer clothing at the end of summer/beginning of fall.
  9. Shop at discount stores like TjMax and Ross.


  1. Forage for food. Check out a book on local edible plants and start stocking up on them.
  2. Buy a water filter and make your own bottled water.
  3. Buy bread at the bread outlet store and freeze excess loaves.
  4. Make meals that are left over friendly, like soups and casseroles.
  5. Join a food co-op.
  6. Make dinners in a crock pot
  7. Buy in bulk.
  8. If you buy soda, buy 2 liter bottles instead of cans. It’s much cheaper per unit price.
  9. Have potluck dinners.
  10. When you eat out, share meals. Most restaurant meals are big enough for two people.
  11. If you don’t have someone to share it with, split the meal and half and put when half in a to-go box for next day’s lunch.
  12. Skip the soda when you go out to eat, and drink water.
  13. Quit smoking.
  14. Make your own coffee. Better yet, stop drinking coffee.
  15. Quit drinking alcohol.
  16. Quit drinking soda.
  17. Find cheaper café’s and restaurants to go to.
  18. Cook your own meals.
  19. Take a list when you go shopping and stick to it.
  20. Buy generic brand products at the supermarket.
  21. Bring your lunch to school or work instead of buying it.
  22. Grow your own vegetables.
  23. Use coupons and loyalty cards at grocery stores.
  24. Reduce meat consumption.
  25. Eat cereal instead of fast food. It’s cheaper and usually healthier.
  26. Have a late lunch/early dinner when going out to eat. You can save on lunch menu items.
  27. Buy cheap food coupons on eBay.
  28. Join clubs at school and take advantage of free food at meetings.
  29. Don’t buy prepackaged cheese or meat. Go to the deli and have them slice it for you. You can get more for you money.
  30. Collect vegetable scraps in a bag in the freezer. As soon as it’s full, make a soup out of them.
  31. Buy whole roasted chickens. When you have used all the meat, throw the bones into a soup.


  1. House sit. Older affluent couples often leave their house for months at a time for vacations and need someone to watch it while they’re gone. Not only can you get free rent, you might get some extra cash.
  2. Become live in help. Some older people need help around the house, someone to cook meals for them, or just someone to talk to. You can live rent free this way.
  3. Relocate to an area with a cheaper cost of living.
  4. Share an apartment. Better yet, move in with your in-laws.
  5. Make an extra mortgage payment each year. You can save money on interest.


  1. Buy furniture at a consignment store.
  2. If you need a tool, see if you can borrow it from someone before you go out and buy it.
  3. Don’t throw away “dead” batteries. Remove them from your radio and use them in quartz clocks. These clocks take such a small amount of power that batteries too weak to run anything else may have enough power to run a clock for a while.
  4. Wash and reuse plastic bags.
  5. Clean your own carpets. You can rent carpet cleaning machines for about $10.

Health Care

  1. If you take a prescription medication on a regular basis, ask your doctor to write a three month prescription. Instead of paying three co-pays, you only pay one.
  2. Go to the dentist at your local dental school. Students need people to practice on. You can get all your dental needs fulfilled at a reduced cost.
  3. If your doctor gives you a prescription, ask if he has samples that he could give you.
  4. Use your local park’s playground as a workout station. Monkey bars can be used for pull-ups and leg lifts. The park will also have a trail where you can run.
  5. If you go to school, use the school’s gym. It’s free.
  6. Brush and floss your teeth. You’ll save on dental expenses.
  7. Eat right and exercise daily. You’ll reduce health costs.
  8. If you join a gym, find one that offers a month to month contract. That way if for some reason you stop going, you won’t be stuck with a 1 year contract that you have to pay for.

Beauty and Hygiene

  1. Use baking soda for toothpaste.
  2. Use baby shampoo for a makeup remover.
  3. Buy makeup online.
  4. Use makeup samples.
  5. Don’t throw out small pieces of bar soap. Wet the small piece and the new bar and stick them together.
  6. Add water to your shampoo to get more uses.
  7. Stop using shaving cream. Shaving cream’s purpose is just to keep your beard wet. You can maintain a wet beard in the shower.
  8. Cut your own hair.
  9. Simplify your beauty products. Do you really need 5 different types of body lotions?


  1. Pack your travel meals in advance.
  2. Buy snacks at the grocery store, not at roadside convenience stores.
  3. Plan trips where you have friends and family. You might be able to score free room and board.
  4. Go camping.
  5. Stay at a college dorm room when traveling. Many universities rent out dorm rooms at a decent price during the summer.
  6. Book your flights and cruises way in advance. You can get lower prices.
  7. Always negotiate hotel room prices. Hotel rooms are like highly perishable food: if they’re not used that day, they’re wasted. You can almost always get a better deal just by asking, but do it with a nice smile face-to-face when you check in, or with friendly calls direct to the hotels you’re considering. It won’t work if you just call national 800 numbers, because they can’t negotiate. If your flight is overbooked and the airline offers a voucher if you take a later flight, take it.
  8. When flying, bring your own snacks. Airport food is expensive.
  9. Avoid renting a car at the airport. You’ll find more competitive rates, plus avoid extra surcharges at car rental agencies away from the convenience of the airport.
  10. Time your stay for best hotel deals. Plan the timing of your stay according to the type of place you visit. Hotels in cities are usually cheaper on the weekends, when business travelers aren’t staying there, but hotels in resort areas or other places that are popular with leisure travelers are often cheaper during the week
  11. Tourist spots sell everything from film — to capture those special moments — to sunscreen, bottled water and aspirin for prolonging your fun, at a higher cost. Purchase these items before and save.
  12. Travel after peak season. This might not be an option if you have school-age children. But families with infants and toddlers can take advantage of discounted rates by traveling in the fall.
  13. Bring an empty water bottle with you to the airport. Bottled water at airports is expensive. While you can’t bring any liquids past security, you can bring an empty bottle. Put it in your carry on and fill it up as soon as you get past security.
  14. Stay in hostels when traveling overseas. While you do have to share a bathroom and a room, you can stay for as little as $5.
  15. If you need a quick get away with your significant other, spend a night in your local bed and breakfast.


  1. Buy an Entertainment book. The initial investment is about $20, but there’s hundreds of dollars in entertainment savings in it.
  2. Join Gamefly for cheap video game renting.
  3. Trade video games, DVD’s and books with your friends.
  4. Start a book or film club. After reading the book or watching the film, discuss it.
  5. Have a game night with friends.
  6. Attend movies at dollar theaters.
  7. Take advantage of your local university. Colleges often have free entertainment events.
  8. Join the library.
  9. Read magazines for free at bookstores.
  10. Check out DVD’s from the library, rather than renting them from the video store.
  11. Find cheaper hobbies like blogging or jogging.
  12. Go on a hike, take a walk in the park, or go to the beach. Some of the nicest things to do in life are totally free.
  13. See if your local zoos, museums, entertainment parks and water parks have annual passes. Often the annual passes may not cost more than the price of a couple of visits.
  14. Save money on movies by going to the matinée.
  15. Watch amateur sports. High school athletic competitions are cheap and can be just as exciting as the pros.

Banking and Investing

  1. Start an automatic savings plan with your bank.
  2. Use your credit card to make all purchases, but pay it off each month. That you’ll earn cash back or travel points.
  3. Invest in index funds. There are hardly any costs in purchasing and owning index funds.
  4. Open an online savings account. Most online accounts offer a 4% interest rate. That’s much better than the 1% you get at your current bank. E-mail me for an ING referral.
  5. Avoid ATM fees. Only withdraw money from machines approved by your bank. 7-11 doesn’t have a surcharge.
  6. Pay bills by direct debit. You save on postage and avoid the risk of paying late fees.
  7. If you use checks, don’t buy them from the bank. You can get a better deal with other printing companies.
  8. Don’t overdraft on your account. You’ll save yourself money on penalties.
  9. Invest with a cheap online brokerage company like Sharebuilder.


  1. Buy gender neutral baby clothing so you can use them again with the next baby.
  2. Make your kids Halloween costumes. It’s cheaper and more fun.
  3. Buy your baby toys from the thrift store. Toys suck these days. Give your child the gift of old school toys that actually requires an imagination.
  4. Buy your baby’s and tot’s clothes from the thrift store. Your kid isn’t going to notice the difference between a thrift store onezy and a Gap onezy.


  1. Use a clothes liner to dry clothes. You’ll save on your energy bill.
  2. Replace old appliances with ones that have Energy Star approval.
  3. Regularly clean the coils on the back of your refrigerator. A clean coil uses less energy.
  4. Make sure your freezer is full. An empty freezer requires more energy to keep cold.
  5. Use washable coffee mug instead of Styrofoam. You’ll save money and help the environment.
  6. Replace all your incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent lighting.
  7. Turn off the lights when not using a room.
  8. Turn off your appliances when not using them.
  9. Don’t use a cell phone.
  10. If you have a cell phone, don’t buy the extra features like text messaging and web access.
  11. If you have a cell phone, get rid of your land line.
  12. Get rid of cable. Who needs 100 channels of crap?
  13. Use the internet at school or the library. Not only will you save money, you’ll save time.
  14. During the winter, leave the oven open after you cook to heat the house.
  15. Sign up for Skype for long distant phone calls.
  16. Turn your heater thermostat down 2 degrees in winter and up 2 degrees in the summer.


  1. Get a digital camera. You save money on film.
  2. Don’t own a pet. You’ll save money on food and shots.


  1. Avoid impulse buying. Practice tantric shopping.
  2. Buy as much as you can online.
  3. Negotiate the price on big ticket items like cars, electronics, and large appliances.
  4. Use cash as a negotiating tool. Nothing makes a seller’s mouth water than cold hard cash in their hand.
  5. Before you buy something, ask if the item will be put on sale in the near future.
  6. Don’t buy extended warranties. Eighty percent are never used, and they’re a major profit item for the vendor. That’s why they push you so hard to buy them!
  7. Keep receipts and send in rebate slips. Very few consumers actually return rebate coupons. Which is, of course, exactly what the manufacturers are hoping for.

Low cost ways of making extra money

  1. Sell your old stuff, like CD’s and books on eBay and Amazon.
  2. Turn your hobby into a business. Pretty much anything you do can be turned into a business of some sort.
  3. Sign up with an online survey company like Survey Spot.
  4. Become a mystery shopper. Not only can you make some extra money, you might get some free stuff as well.
  5. Have a yard sell.
  6. Start a blog and put Adsense on it. You might only earn 4 cents a week, but it’s something.
  7. Become a consultant. Do you know a lot about a particular skill? Put that knowledge to work by helping others.
  8. Do freelance work on the side. If you’re a good writer, photographer, artist, or programmer you can make some extra money by selling your talent to companies.
  9. Start an errand Service. Offer to pick up groceries or dry cleaning for others.
  10. Waiting service. People these days don’t have time to wait on the plumber of cable guy. Charge by the hour to do the waiting for other people.


  1. Check out study supplements from the library. Don’t buy them.
  2. Buy used text books.
  3. Take advantage of free pens and pencils at business conferences.
  4. Keep track of your pens and pencils. You’ll spend less on them if you don’t lose them all the time.
  5. Buy back packs that your kids can use for years. While they might think the Sponge Bob Square pants one is cool in 2nd grade, they probably won’t think it’s cool in 4th.


  1. Use open source software like OpenOffice for your computing needs. Here’s a huge list of all the open source software you’ll ever need.
  2. Refill ink cartridges instead of buying new ones.
  3. Print off your documents in draft mode. It’s faster and saves ink.
  4. Use free online storage for all your digital storage needs.
  5. When you buy new computers or printers, keep the old cables. You never know when they’ll come in handy.


  1. Make your own greeting cards.
  2. Make your own wrapping paper.
  3. Agree with family and friends to NOT buy each other Christmas presents this year.
  1. Offer to give a service, like a night of free babysitting as a gift, instead of buying stuff.
  2. Give baked goods. Everyone loves cookies!
  3. Learn the art of the re-gift. If you get something that you don’t like, keep it and give it to someone else later. However be careful to keep track of who gave you what. You don’t want to give a gift back to somebody.

Can you think of any more? Add to the conversation!
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Featured Resources

A great way to avoid spending extra Money is by avoiding Credit Card Offers that have a high Interest Rate. When you signup with a new Credit company be sure to check their APR rates and find out if a free Balance Transfer option can help you save money.
[tags]saving, frugality, personal finance, clothing, food, cars, beauty, health care [/tags]

Book Review: Generation Debt

Written by Brett McKay

I first heard about Anya Kamenetz’s book, Generation Debt, during an interview with her on NPR. I was interested in her argument that Generation X and Generation Y have a good chance of being the first generation in America to be worse off then their preceding (Boomer) generation.

The main argument of Generation Debt is that because of higher education costs and lowering wages, young people face the prospect of not achieving a middle class life style. Kamenetz mixes statistics with anecdotal stories that show the disparaging circumstances young people. Many of the stories were heartbreaking and they all had the same theme: Boy or girl has dream of going to college and starting a career. Dream crushed by rising costs of college and stagnating wages.

What I liked about Generation Debt
I though Kamenetz made a strong argument for financial aid reform. The recent Sallie Mae scandals made her book even more relevant. If America wants to be competitive in the future, the government is going to have to invest much more in education than what it is investing now.

I also agreed Kamenetz that young people need to adjust their expectations. Everybody doesn’t have to go to college to be a success. For many young people it can be waste of time and money. Many of the people she interviewed in her book took on thousands of dollars in student loans in order to go to school. However, the only reason they were going was because that’s what every young person is supposed to do. By the time they realize college isn’t from them, they’ve accumulated $10,000 in student loans. Instead of just encouraging college, parents and counselors should also encourage vo-tech. I don’t know why vo-tech is so stigmatized. I know plenty of people who have gone to v0-tech, learned a trade, and are making a decent living. Both college and trade schools should be seen as equally viable steps to earning a living.

My Beefs With Generation Debt
I guess it’s the classical liberal in me, but I felt Kamenetz put too much blame on society/corporations/government for young people’s debt problems and not enough on the individual. For example, she argues because young people are the most advertised to demographic, young people are taking on more debt to buy stuff. I just don’t buy this argument. It’s called personal responsibility. I find it rather insulting to our generation that we’re dumb enough to buy stuff just because an advertiser says we need to.

Additionally, she makes the case against credit card companies preying on college students by giving out t-shirts and beer coozies. Yes, credit card companies market heavily to college students, but they’re not holding a gun to their head sign up. If you’re dumb enough to trade t-shirt for access to high interest rate debt, then you deserve to pay the bill. Perhaps it’s a fault, but I have no sympathy for young people with credit card debt, especially when the debt is for eating out, CD’s, travel, ect.

I also wish Kamenetz had more examples of young people making responsible financial decisions. Most of the book is filled with bad examples of young people spending money on iPods and vacations they can’t afford. It wasn’t until the end that she discussed young people who are living frugally and saving for the future. The discussion, however, was only a few pages.

Do I Recommend it?
Overall the book was… eh… Kamentz makes some good arguments about the rising costs of college education and the need for the government to invest more in education. However, I was turned off by her slightly whining tone. She made the young people sound like victims of forces they can’t control. However, many of the cases appeared just to be victims of bad personal decisions. I don’t think I would recommend someone to read the whole book. Rather, I would just direct their attention to the chapter discussing the situation of education costs.

[tags] Generation Debt, debt, Anya Kamenetz[/tags]

A Whole New Mind: Wrap-up

Written by Brett McKay

I really enjoyed A Whole New Mind and I highly recommend that law students read it. I think lawyers, particularly young one’s can benefit greatly from putting what Pink suggests to practice in their careers.
The law field is changing along with the rest of the economy. Success will require new skills. L-directed thinking is no longer sufficient. Success in this high concept world will require R-directed thinking. Here’s a list of the series’ posts.

Part 1: Overview

Part 2: Design

Part 3: Story

Part 4: Symphony

Part 5: Empathy

Part 6: Play

Part 7: Meaning

A Whole New Mind:Meaning

Written by Brett McKay

Today we’ll be looking at A Whole New Mind’s last R-directed sense, meaning.

Meaning is to have a purpose beyond life’s trivialities. It’s what motivates people to do great things. Meaning brings peace in a chaotic world. Individuals who are happy have a sense of meaning in their lives. They look beyond themselves and desire to contribute to their family or society.

How does meaning apply to law? Depression is rampant in the field of law. Most attorneys who suffer depression describe the lack of meaning they have in their careers. Many went into law for the money, but they soon find out the hard truth that money doesn’t buy happiness. In order to avoid this pitfall, take a step back and really analyze why you’re doing law. If it’s just for the money, then you’re in it for the wrong reasons. Get out now.

Why am I choosing a career in law? I like the challenge of it. It fills my need to be both abstract and practical. I like the opportunity to help people solve their problems. It’s a career that I know I can support my family with.

How can we develop our sense of meaning? Let’s see what A Whole New Mind suggests.

  1. Say thanks. Be grateful for what you have. Being satisfied with life is not getting what you want, it’s being happy with the things you have. Give gratitude to your loved ones, co-workers, and whichever Higher Power you believe.
  2. Books to read
    1. Man’s Search For Meaning.This is one of my all time favorite books. Dr. Frankle was a holocaust survivor. While he was in a concentration camp, he developed a new form of mental and emotional therapy called logotherapy. Instead of blaming your dad or a rotten childhood for you problems, logotherapy begins with the presumption that the individual is responsible for they way they feel. In order to find happiness, one must look beyond themselves.
    2. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. I haven’t read this book before, but the idea of it is how individuals can attain the state of “flow” in their lives. The book describes flow as an experience that is at once demanding and rewarding. Knowing how to get into this state can come in handy during final exams.
    3. Mindfulness. This is another book I haven’t read, but it looks good. I’ve read about mindfulness on 43 Folders, so the idea isn’t new to me. Mindfulness basically means paying attention to everything you do- from the way you lift weights to the way you fill up the car with gas. It’s being in the here and now. By practicing mindfulness, one opens the door to new insights and intuitions
  3. Visit a labyrinth. Labyrinths are maze like designs that are etched into a ground so that people can walk to the center and back again. It allows people to meditate and focus themselves in the process. Visit the Labyrinth Society to find a labyrinth near you. If you don’t have a labyrinth near you or you would like to “center” yourself anytime of the day by using a labyrinth, download my hipster PDA finger labyrinth and add it to your stack of cards. Whenever you’re feeling stressed, just take out the labyrinth, and run you finger slowly along the maze. You’d be surprised how calming this is.

A Whole New Mind: Play

Written by Brett McKay

I’ve grown up thinking work shouldn’t be fun. If you’re having fun, it means you’re not getting anything done. The truth is that people who are having fun at work are the one’s who are most productive.

A Whole New Mind discusses the importance of play in life and at work. The book breaks down play into three parts: games, humor, joyfulness.

The book discusses how games can be a way to unleash creativity in employees. Many games require one to use both the left side and right side of the brain. Not only do you have to strategies, but often you must cooperate with other individuals in order to win.

The second element of play is humor. Developing your sense of humor is an exercise of creativity. It often requires one to step back, look at the big picture, and see what types of humors connections that exist in life. It also requires one to shed new light or to present things in completely different ways. Think of the funniest jokes you’ve heard. What makes them funny? I’m sure it’s either the joke presents a theme in a radically different way or it makes some sort of funny connection between two conflicting ideas.

The final element is joyfulness. Successful people are happy people. They enjoy what they do and try to make others happy as well.

How does play apply to law? The legal field has a reputation of being stuffy, but it doesn’t have to be that way. The law can and should be a giant exercise in play. Take law school exams. I think there are some parallels between one’s attitude during an exam and test scores. Those who look at exams as a dreadful, soul destroying experiences walk away with bad scores. Those who look at exams as a game or puzzle to be beaten walk away with better scores. I think law students can do much better on exams if they look at the hypo as a game their teacher has made. Class is where you learn the rules (the law) of the game. Winning the game (the exam) is just a matter of using the rules. I know the analogy is simplistic, but it works for me.

Additionally, having a playful attitude at work can combat the “unhappy lawyer syndrome” that plagues the American legal field. Have some fun with your fellow associates. Play a joke on them. Make work a fun place to be.

Here’s what the book suggests one can do to improve their sense of play.

  1. Join a laughter club. A Dr. in India has started laughter clubs. People go there just to laugh. No one tells jokes, you just start laughing. It sounds weird, I know. But apparently participants in laughter clubs have shown signs of healthier and longer lives. Think about the last time you laughed really hard. How did you feel afterwards? Probably pretty dang good. That’s because laughing releases hormones and endorphins in the body that benefit us not only psychologically but also physically.
  2. Play the cartoon captions game. This exercise will help develop your sense of humor. Find old New Yorker cartoons and write your own caption.
  3. Play video games. Despite what you’re mother told you, video games are good for you. Today’s games often require a player to strategies and work together as a team. Why not have some fun as you develop team work skills and creativity.

A Whole New Mind: Empathy

Written by Brett McKay

Today we’ll be discussing A Whole New Mind’s take on empathy. Empathy is the ability to put yourself in the shoes of another and understand how they feel. It requires one to look beyond themselves. I like how Dan describes empathy:

Empathy allows us to see the other side of an argument, comfort someone in distress, and bite our lip instead of muttering something snide. Empathy builds self-awareness [and]… allows us to work together.

How does empathy apply to law? The legal field is a people field. Everything you do in law requires empathy. When you’re before a judge or jury, the ability to understand how they think or feel about things will assist you in persuading them to your side. When you sit down and negotiate a business deal or try to mediate a divorce, empathy and people skills are essential.

I think it’s hard for law students to understand the importance of empathy in law. We just see law in the abstract. We read cases, extract law, and that’s that. For me, I often forget that the case involves real people.

So, how can you improve your sense of empathy? Here’s what the book suggests.

  1. Take acting classes. Acting is empathizing. We often hear how an actor has to “get into character.” It means the actor has to look beyond themselves and try to discover how their character would act in different situations. It’s a difficult skill to master, but the lessons learned from acting classes will surely help anybody with the ability to empathize. Acting classes can also help with public speaking, a vital skill in litigation.
  2. Volunteer. Volunteering forces you to interact with people who aren’t like you. By helping people with your problems, you can develop your ability to empathize.
  3. Take emotional quotient tests. Ivillage has a nice test so you can see how your emotional IQ stands.

My own suggestion for developing empathy in law school.

  • Get to know the people in your casebook. As mentioned above, I have the problem of overlooking that real people are the characters in my case book. As a way to counteract this, I’ll Google the plaintiff’s or defendant’s name. Often I can come up with a picture of the individual and a news story to go along with it. It’s a nice way to personalize what I’m reading and get beyond the purely analytic nature of the case law method.